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  1. 3. Sovereignty, In the U.S. political debate over slavery, an idea that suggested people living in a territory should vote on whether to allow slavery there. Stephen Douglas supported this idea.
  2. 5. Kansas", A consequence of the Kansas-Nebraska Act; the conflict between people who supported slavery and those who opposed it quickly became violent.
  3. 11. Act, (1854) A law that gave people living in the Kansas and Nebraska territories the right to decide whether slavery would be allowed there.
  4. 17. Slave Act, A law passed in 1850 that required states to return escaped slaves to their owners and made it illegal for people to help slaves escape.
  5. 18. States of America, The 11 Southern states that withdrew from the United States in 1861. Also known as the Confederacy, these states fought the Union in the Civil War between 1861 and 1865. After losing the war, the Southern states rejoined the United States.
  6. 19. of the South, Depended on agriculture and used enslaved African Americans to work the fields. Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin helped the plantation economy grow even more.
  7. 21. Scott v. Sandford (1857), A Supreme Court decision that involved an enslaved African American named Dred Scott. He sued for his freedom after his owner took him to a free state. The Court said that as a slave, Scott was not a citizen and could not sue in court. He was not granted his freedom.
  8. 22. of the North, Consisted of manufacturing, small farms, and trading goods to the south and west.
  9. 24. economy, In the American South, the large-scale production of crops such as tobacco, cotton, rice, and indigo. Slave labor was required to make this economy successful.
  10. 26. of the Missouri Compromise, The compromise allowed Missouri to join as a slave state, while also adding Maine as a free state. It also set rules about where slavery could spread.
  11. 27. Gin, A machine that removes the seeds from cotton, something that was previously done by hand. The invention of the cotton gin allowed plantation owners to produce cotton at a lower cost.
  12. 29. Brown, (1800 - 1859) An abolitionist who took part in the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas, where several supporters of slavery were killed. He and his followers tried to take military supplies from a federal building in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He was convicted of treason for this act and then hanged.
  13. 30. War, (1861 - 1865) A war fought between the Northern and Southern states of the United States. Eleven Southern states fought to form an independent nation — the Confederate States of America — and preserve the institution of slavery. They were defeated by the Union, which fought to preserve the United States as a single country and to end slavery.
  14. 31. of 1850, A set of laws passed in Congress that were designed to make leaders in both free states and slave states happy. California was added to the United States as a free state, and the slave trade was banned in Washington, D.C. Citizens in the Utah and New Mexico territories would be able to vote on whether to allow slavery. The Fugitive Slave Act was also passed as part of the compromise.
  15. 32. A tax on goods brought into or shipped out of a country.
  16. 33. Someone who works to end slavery.
  17. 34. for a strong and growing economy in the North, The region experienced industrialization, and manufacturing became a major driver of economic growth.
  1. 1. made to defend slavery, The economy, racism, and history.
  2. 2. Party (1860), A major political party in the United States. It was originally created in 1854 by leaders who wanted to stop the spread of slavery.
  3. 4. government, The central government of a country made up of smaller states.
  4. 6. view of States' Rights, States should control their own lands- states should be able to ignore laws they don't like.
  5. 7. The process of making large amounts of something using machinery.
  6. 8. Party (1860), A major political party in the United States. It was originally created in the 1790s by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to fight for the rights of ordinary American citizens; supported slavery in the South.
  7. 9. Party, Political organizations made up of people with similar beliefs about government policies.
  8. 10. Compromise, An agreement passed in Congress in 1820 that allowed slavery in the new state of Missouri but not in new territories north of Missouri's southern border.
  9. 12. stance on tariffs, Opposed slavery and supported high tariffs
  10. 13. To officially end membership in a group. In the 1860s, many Southern states seceded from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America.
  11. 14. Violence and resistance against the government or another authority.
  12. 15. stance on tariffs, Supported slavery and opposed high tariffs
  13. 16. A system in which some people are owned by other people and forced to work for them. In the United States, slavery lasted from the colonial period until 1865. Almost all enslaved people in the United States were people of African descent.
  14. 20. Loyalty to one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole
  15. 22. of 1860, Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, people in the South were furious — and frightened. Lincoln wanted to limit the spread of slavery. Southerners wanted to protect and expand it.
  16. 23. The process in which an economy's focus changes from farming to manufacturing goods, often in factories.
  17. 25. Lincoln, (1809 - 1865) A lawyer and politician from Illinois who served as president of the United States from 1861 to 1865. He led the country through the Civil War, helping to end slavery and keep the North and the South unified.
  18. 27. Crop, A plant that is grown in large amounts and sold for money (Ex- Cotton, tobacco, sugar cane)
  19. 28. view of States' Rights, The federal government is supreme- no one can ignore federal laws.