4. an adjective that modifies a noun by focusing on how much, how many, whose, etc.; can be grouped into nine types
7. an adjective that describes a quality of the noun or pronoun it modifies “the TALL girl”
9. the main verb and all phrases which follow the verb
11. verbs that act like the verb “to be”, but look different (e.g., “She seems happy.”)
13. a _______ morpheme that can occur only in combination—they are parts of a word
15. a syntactic structure that contains one or more words but does not contain both a subjects and a verb
17. a _______ pronoun refers to a noun and embeds or conjoins a clause to the rest of a sentence via subordination (e.g., who, why, that, which)
19. Around __ years of age, verbs comprise about 30% of a child’s lexicon.
20. A word or phrase in a reply might be omitted or _________ to avoid redundancies. For example: “Are you going to the store?” “I am.”
21. Verbs are so important because they are the “_______” of the utterance - Turner, 1966.
22. The earliest verbs a child uses are _______ verbs. (Brown’s Stage 1)
24. The word “so” is a subordinating conjunction when it means “_________” or gives a reason.
26. a class of words that provides additional information about nouns, pronouns, and verbs; is generally either an adjective or an adverb
29. Once a child has developed the use of complex sentences, we should no longer count morphemes (for MLU) but should count _________.
30. The Mean Length of Utterance in words (MLR-W) might also be called the Mean Length of ___________ (MLR), which counts words per utterance and not morphemes to better observe changes in syntactic complexity during later language development.
31. the smallest unit of sound in a language that has meaning
32. ______ voice: a sentence in which the subject is acted upon (e.g., “The door was opened by John.”)
34. The earliest forms of pronouns a child develops are _________ pronouns.
35. About 60% of a first lexicon are ________.
39. when “to be” is the “helping” verb
40. a _______ pronoun identifies or highlights a particular noun or antecedent (e.g., this, that, these, and those)
1. an _______ pronoun is used to ask a “wh-” question (e.g., “Who went to the party?”)
2. Counting the words in each T-unit permits documentation of the change in _________.
3. _________ verbs are the earliest verbs children will learn how to speak.
5. a unit of meaning in written language
6. an _______ clause expresses the main idea of a sentence and can stand alone and maintain full meaning
8. an _______ pronoun has a general, unstated referent (e.g., nothing, some)
10. the study of word formation, of the structure of words
12. a modifier that describes a noun or pronoun; can be descriptive or limiting
14. During the preschool period, verbs account for about _____________% of the lexicon.
16. ______ voice: a sentence which the subject is the performer of an action (e.g., “John opened the door.”)
18. a syntactic structure that contains a subjects and a predicate; is either independent (main) or independent (subordinate)
23. a word that replaces a noun
25. a modifier that provides information about verbs, adjectives, and other _______
27. the smallest unit of meaning in a language
28. _________ are rarely used by very young children. The first uses are “here” and “there” or “on top” or “in here”.
33. an ______ verb that does not require an object (e.g., “He sleeps.”)
36. the topic of the sentence, all-inclusive phrase up to the main verb
37. a _______ morpheme that can stand alone as a word
38. A syntactic structure containing at least one one independent clause with one complete thought; includes a subject and a predicate