3. group/ A homologous series of hydrocarbon molecules, with the general formula CnH2n+1.
6. A hydrocarbon, such as an alkene, that contains one or more carbon–carbon multiple bonds.
7. A species that takes part in a reaction by accepting a lone pair of electrons from a nucleophile.
8. addition/ An addition reaction in which an electrophile attacks a double bond, and becomes bonded to one of the atoms that formed the double bond by a single covalent bond. One example is the formation of halogenoalkanes from alkenes, in which a halogen (X2) or hydrogen halide (HX) attacks a carbon–carbon double bond.
9. An ion containing a positively-charged carbon atom. These are intermediates in electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes.
10. The formation of a long chain molecule (polymer) consisting of many monomer molecules joined together.
12. – The addition of water across a carbon–carbon double bond.
14. water/ An aqueous solution of bromine that can be used to test for the presence of unsaturation.
15. bond/ The strongest type of covalent bond, formed by the end-to-end overlap of atomic orbitals. Represented by the symbol σ.
16. polymerization/ A type of polymerization in which unsaturated monomers (e.g. alkenes) undergo addition reactions with themselves to form polymers.
1. series/ A group of compounds that all have the same functional group but a different number of carbon atoms. Examples include alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, amines and halogenoalkanes.
2. The repeating unit from which a polymer is made. For example, the monomer of polypropene is propene.
4. An alkene (such as propene) in which the atoms or groups of atoms attached to opposite ends of the carbon–carbon double bond are not the same. This means that when they undergo addition reactions they can create a mix of different products.
5. The addition of hydrogen across a carbon–carbon double bond.
10. isomerism/ A category of structural isomerism in which molecules have the same molecular formula but in which the functional group is attached to a different carbon atom.
11. A homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n.
13. bond/A covalent bond formed by the sideways overlap of atomic orbitals. It is involved in double bonds, and prevents rotation about the bond. Represented by the symbol π.