2. A form of malware that demands money from the user in return for something.
6. This process is similar to encryption in that plaintext is transformed into ciphertext, which cannot be understood. However, in this instance the ciphertext cannot be decrypted (converted back.)
10. The act of fraudulently impersonating others in order to gain trust and cause victims to share unauthorised information.
12. A cybersecurity attack in which multiple devices are used to prevent genuine users from being able to access a particular system.
14. The form of encryption that requires a single key.
15. An attack that involves intercepting communications without the knowledge of the victim or the service.
16. A cybersecurity attack in which an individual attempts to stop genuine users from being able to use a particular system, using only one device.
20. The technique of finding vulnerabilities that could potentially be exploited to gain access and information.
23. A form of malware that is disguised as a legitimate program. Malicious code is hidden within the software to gain access to the user's system.
26. A form of malware that is more self-sufficient, as it has the ability to exist and spread with no reliance on host files or human interaction.
27. A social engineering technique that uses social media to impersonate others for some form of personal gain, potentially including unauthorised information and money.
28. A service that can be used to protect your internet connection and privacy when operating online. This is done via the creation of an encrypted tunnel.
30. A social engineering technique that uses emails to impersonate others and gain access to unauthorised information.
31. Software that was created with malicious intent.
34. A device which monitors all data coming into and out of a system/network, stopping anything that it believes could be harmful and/or unwanted.
35. A form of malware that attaches itself to other files and requires human interaction in order to be able to spread and attach to more files.
36. The coloured hat of hackers that are cybersecurity experts who have received authorisation to hack others in order to identify vulnerabilities.
37. A form of malware that shows unwanted ads on the user's device
38. The result of spreading bots, whereby the army of slave devices under one master can be controlled and used in DDoS attacks to harness the power and networking capabilities of all of them.
40. A social engineering technique that uses voice calls to impersonate others and gain access to unauthorised information.
1. The act of a hacker gathering information about your device and its connection to a website/service to then configure their device to match yours and take over in communication as if they are you.
3. A form of malware that gathers data about you and your device usage and forwards this to a third-party without your knowledge or consent.
4. A social engineering technique that directs a website's traffic elsewhere in order to gain access to unauthorised information.
5. The process of eavesdropping on what is being sent in a network using a piece of software.
7. A technique in which an unknown source is disguised as a genuine business/person/platform in order to gain access to unauthorised information.
8. A more concentrated form of social engineering in which the engineer uses small pieces of easily-accessible information to appear more believable e.g. using the individual's name.
9. The coloured hat of hackers that are cybercriminals who uses hacking for malicious intent and personal gain.
11. The coloured hat of cybercriminals who gain access to systems without permission for the purposes of what they believe is ethically right.
13. A type of network that is heavily susceptible to attacks due to not having a password, thus allowing anyone to join.
17. A piece of software that can be used to store and manage online credentials. It uses encryption to store the passwords in a safe way, so that they can be accessed later.
18. A form of malware that makes it so that a device can be controlled. This relationship between the controlled device and the one doing the controlling is known as slave and master.
19. The form of encryption that requires two keys.
21. The process of converting normal data/information (plaintext) into another form (ciphertext.)
22. A social engineering technique that uses text messages to impersonate others and gain access to unauthorised information.
24. Someone who attempts to breach the defenses of a computer system or network to identify weaknesses.
25. A piece of software that detects, prevents and removes viruses and other malware from a system.
29. A network security measure in which a secure computer (or computer network) is isolated with no access to the internet.
32. A targeted, focused form of social engineering in which the engineer uses information to appear more believable in targeting a high-profile individual e.g. a celebrity or business person in a significant role.
33. The coloured hat of hackers who do not have authorisation to hack a given system, but do so without malicious intent.
39. A human threat in which people gain access to unauthorised areas by following others into secure areas.