1. 2. inorganic micronutrients that have a variety of functions in the body; examples include calcium, sodium, potassium, and iron
  2. 4. low blood sugar levels
  3. 7. density refers to foods that are high in nutrient and low in calories
  4. 8. - body mass index Body Mass Index; a measure of body fat based on height and weight (weight in kg divided by height in square meters)
  5. 9. dietary lipid or triglyceride that provides 9 calories per gram
  6. 11. acids building blocks of proteins that are reassembled into new proteins during protein synthesis
  7. 14. soluble vitamins Usually bound to lipids and absorbed during digestion, are stored in the body so can be over-consumed (A, D, E & K)
  8. 20. low density lipoproteins carry cholesterol to cells where they may be deposited in arteries along the way
  9. 21. proteins Fibrous proteins that make up the bulk of cellular structures; actin, myosin, collagen, keratin, etc.
  10. 22. tissue that is composed of fat cells; insulates the body
  11. 24. the types and amounts of food we eat; a balanced diet provides all the necessary nutrients for the body to function properly
  12. 25. provide structural components and energy; make up the bulk of our food
  13. 26. a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell wall; does not provide energy, but keeps the colon healthy
  14. 28. nutrient that provides 4 calories per gram; composed of long chains of amino acids
  15. 29. high density lipoproteins carry cholesterol away from cells
  16. 30. metabolic rate the amount of energy the body needs just to stay alive per unit of time; the biggest component of overall metabolism
  17. 31. form of energy that cells can use
  18. 32. organic micronutrients that function as coenzymes in essential reactions, must be consumed, no calories
  19. 33. type of fats from animal products that are solid at room temperature; all single bonds between carbons in fatty acid chains
  20. 35. nutrient that provides 4 calories per gram; body's preferred energy source
  21. 36. facts labels provide information on nutrients, calories, serving sizes, and ingredients of foods
  22. 37. high levels of blood glucose or blood sugar
  1. 1. all the biochemical reactions that occur in the body; involves how the body uses energy from food
  2. 3. simple sugar that is the body's preferred energy source, also called blood sugar
  3. 5. unhealthy processed fats; also called partially hydrogenated oils
  4. 6. proteins Globular proteins that have a function in the body; antibodies, enzymes, hormones, etc.
  5. 10. type of fats from plants that are liquid at room temperature; one or more double bonds between carbons in fatty acid chains
  6. 12. soluble vitamins Not stored in the body, so excess is excreted in urine (C and eight B vitamins)
  7. 13. type of lipid that is not used for energy by as a structural component of some hormones, vitamin D, and cell membranes
  8. 15. unit of measurement of the energy in food
  9. 16. critical for good health, but needed only in very small quantities
  10. 17. 9 amino acids that cannot be made by cells and must be obtained through the diet
  11. 18. US Department of Agriculture, provides leadership and guidelines on food and nutrition
  12. 19. organic and inorganic substances needed by the body
  13. 23. organ that receives most of the nutrients from digestion; has many body functions
  14. 27. temperature 37°C, maintained by heat from production of ATP
  15. 34. having a BMI over 30%; increases risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer