4. Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended daily nutrient and energy intake amounts (that is, what a person needs to consume) for healthy people of a particular age range and gender. They are the guides for nutrition and food selection.
6. Sauce that has been aerated and then spooned onto the dish.
8. Medicines that prevent bacterial infections.
9. protein: Food that lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. Food from plant sources are incomplete proteins.
11. proteins: Two or more incomplete protein sources that together provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids.
13. Legally meaningless as a term. Food products labeled as "natural" may or may not have any organic ingredients or processing.
14. additive: Substance or combination of substances present in food as a result of processing, production, or packaging.
17. Inorganic element essential to nutrition that is classified as major or trace, according to how much is needed in the diet. Even though some minerals are needed in very tiny amounts, getting the right amount is important to good health. Minerals are part of body structures and are also needed for body functions.
19. vitamins: Vitamins A, D, E, and K, which are found in food containing fat. They're stored in the liver and body fat. The body draws on these stored vitamins when needed.
20. Person who consumes vegetarian items plus dairy products and eggs.
22. proteins: Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids in the right amount. Good sources of complete proteins are meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products.
23. salt: Has no additives, so it has a purer flavor than table salt. It is usually coarser than table salt, which means it has larger crystals.
27. Physical condition caused by a lack of nutrients or an imbalance of nutrients.
28. Process in which fats are combined with, treated with, or exposed to hydrogen to alter their physical properties and make them stay fresh longer.
29. Very important simple sugar; glucose is the primary source of energy and the only source of energy for the brain and nervous system. Good sources of glucose are fruit, vegetables, and honey.
35. Energy needed to heat 1 kilogram (about 2.2 pounds) of water by approximately 1oC. In nutrition, the unit of measurement for energy is the kilocalorie, but it is more commonly called a calorie.
36. Hormone produced in the pancreas that allows glucose, or blood sugar, to travel throughout the body for energy use.
37. White, waxy substance produced in the liver that helps the body carry out its many processes.
38. Chemical that might occur naturally or be synthetic, but is chemically identical to natural substances. Additives are added to food as a result of processing, production, or packaging.
39. Components of food that are needed for the body to function.
40. fiber: Fiber that does not dissolve in water. It was once referred to as roughage ("ruff-ij") because it is rough. It acts like a stiff broom to clean and scrub the digestive tract so we can eliminate wastes from our systems more easily.
1. Substance found in plant food, such as whole grains, fruit, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, that promotes digestive health and regularity.
2. modified organism (GMO): Plant or animal whose genetic makeup has been altered.
3. mellitus: Condition in which the body cannot regulate blood sugar properly.
5. acids: Chemical compounds that have special functions in the body, including supplying nitrogen for growth and maintenance.
7. intakes (AIs): Similar to RDAs, AIs also identify daily intake levels for healthy people. AIs are typically assigned when scientists don't have enough information to set an RDA.
10. diseases: Diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels and include hypertension, strokes, and heart attacks. Collectively, they are the number one cause of death in the United States.
12. carbohydrate: This energy source contains long chains that include many glucose molecules. They are found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, and vegetables. They provide a long-lasting source of energy.
15. See kilocalorie.
16. Person who consumes vegetarian items plus dairy products.
18. anemia: Condition caused by lack of iron in a person's blood.
21. Usually refers to both fats and oils, although basic differences exist between the two. Fats are solid at room temperature and often come from animals.
24. product: Product grown using approved USDA and FDA agricultural methods. The methods allow the use of certain fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, and drugs that are recognized as safe. Most of the food in the supermarket and from restaurant and foodservice suppliers comes from conventional producers.
25. organic: Products that meet the requirements of their certifying organization. The "certified organic" name applies to farming and processing techniques that are simple, nontoxic, and sustainable. If a label is USDA "certified organic," it will apply to these standards.
26. Body's main energy source; this type of nutrient provides the body with four kilocalories of energy per gram of food eaten and helps the body use protein and fat efficiently.
28. Weed killer.
29. (genetically modified organism): Plant or animal whose genetic makeup has been changed.
30. Another word for fat, lipids are a group of molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, steroids, and other compounds.
31. salt: Table salt that has been enriched with iodine as a nutritional supplement.
32. Special chemical messengers made by bodies that regulate different body functions. This term might also refer to substances injected into animals to make them grow.
33. This is when a substance thickens and congeals.
34. amino acids: Nine amino acids that have to be obtained from food each day.