6. large regions, such as forests, deserts, and grasslands, with distinct climates and certain species (especially vegetation) adapted to them.
7. management worldview: holds that we are separate from and in charge of nature, that nature exists mainly to meet our needs and increasing wants and that we can use our ingenuity and technology to mage the earth’s life support systems, mostly for our benefit, indefinitely.
12. change when there is a change in chemical composition.
15. the ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a more severe disturbance.
18. is anything obtained form the environment to meet our needs and wants.
19. cycle sulfur circulates through the biosphere.
20. extinction is a significant rise in extinction rates above the background level.
21. is a set of organisms within defined area or volume interacting with one another and with and their environment of nonliving matter and energy.
22. cycle cycle of nitrogen.
24. cycling the circulation of chemicals necessary for life, from the environment (mostly from soil and water) through organisms and back to the environment.
26. resource a resource that is renewed continuously and is expected to last 6 billion years as the sun completes its life cycle.
29. is money and other forms of wealth that can be used to support one’s lifestyle, providing a sustainable income if used properly, and an economy.
30. is the science that focuses on how organisms interact with one another and with their non-living environment of matter and energy.
33. one species splits into two or more different species.
35. sequences of nucleotides.
37. animals that feed on the flesh of other animals. (Lion, tiger)
40. selection individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce under a particular set of environmental conditions than are those without the traits.
41. a community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy.
44. species species that play a major role in founding new ecosystems. (Elephants).
45. characteristic, passed on from parents to offspring during reproduction in an animal or plant.
46. is a fundamental substance that has a unique set of properties and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
47. cycle phosphorus circulates through water, the earth’s crust and living organisms.
49. theory a well tested and widely accepted scientific hypothesis or a group of related hypotheses
51. energy stored energy.
54. of conservation of matter whenever matter undergoes a physical change or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed.
56. is a set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
57. energy is dispersed and has little capacity to do useful work.
59. consists of nonliving components.
60. species have broad niches. They can live almost anywhere, eat a variety of foods, and often tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. (Cockroach)
62. the dry weight of all organic matter contained in its organisms.
65. of evolution all species descended from earlier, ancestral species.
66. positively charged
68. combinations of two or more different elements held together in fixed proportions.
69. diversity the variety of processes such as energy flow and matter cycling that occur within ecosystems.
70. sources are single, identifiable sources.
72. a social movement dedicated to protecting the earth’s life -support systems for all forms of life.
76. number number of protons in the nucleus of its atom.
78. forms of an element having the same atomic number but different mass number.
82. resistance is the combination of all factors that act to limit the growth of population.
83. cycle collects, purifies, and distributes this supply of water.
85. isolation mutation and change by natural selection operate independently in the gene pools of geographically isolated populations.
92. evolution the process whereby earth’s life changes over time through changes in the genetic characteristics of populations.
94. an atom or groups of atoms with one or more net positive or negative electrical charges.
95. review scientists openly publish details of the methods and models they used the results of their experiments and the reasoning behind their hypotheses for other scientists working on the same field to evaluate.
97. is the rate at which producers use photosynthesis to produce and store chemical energy minus the rate at which they use some of this stored chemical energy through aerobic respiration.
98. succession the gradual change in species composition in a given area.
102. of commons we are environmentally degrading many openly shared renewable resources.
104. occurs when a member of one species feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species. (Lion eats a zebra)
106. is everything around us, or as a famous physicist Albert Einstein put it, “The environment is everything that isn’t me.” It includes the living and the non-living factors.
109. energy is concentrated and has high capacity to do useful work.
111. resource a resource that can be renewed but doesn’t happen right away.
112. is the ability of earth’s various natural systems and human cultural systems and economies to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions. (The 3 principles are: biodiversity, chemical cycling, and solar energy.)
115. measure of acidity, based on the amount of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions contained in a particular volume of a solution.
117. growth occurs when a quantity such as the human population increases at a fixed percentage per unit of time.
118. is the variety of earth’s species, the genes they contain the ecosystems in which they live and the ecosystem processes of energy flow and nutrient cycling that sustain all life. (Components of biodiversity: functional diversity, ecological diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity).
119. mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons, bones, teeth, shells, leaves, and seeds, or impressions of such items found on rocks.
120. are consumers that release nutrients from the dead bodies of plants and animals and return them to the soil, water, and air for reuse by producers. (Fungi, bacteria)
123. is an interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food, shelter, or some other resource.
125. sources unidentifiable sources.
126. the total of kinetic energy of all moving atoms, ions or molecules within a given substance.
127. isolation occurs when different groups of the same population of a species become physically isolated from one another for a long period of time.
128. species species that provide early warnings of damage to a community or an ecosystem. (Butterflies).
129. crash dieback
130. negatively charged
131. evenness amount of individuals in each set of species.
132. succession when an ecosystem starts where there is no ground sediment or soil. (Example: an ecosystem starting where lava once was)
1. chain sequence of organisms, each of which serves as a source of food or energy for the next.
2. species species that are found in only one area.
3. diversity variety of genes.
5. random changes in the DNA molecules of a gene in any cell.
7. occurs when one organism feeds on the other organism usually by living on or in the host. (Tick on a dog)
8. number the total number of neutrons and protons in its nucleus.
9. the fundamental structural and functional unit of life.
10. extremely small and dense center of an atom.
11. means reusing a resource
12. capacity the maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely.
13. species species whose roles have a large effect on the types and abundances of other species in an ecosystem. (Amphibians)
14. succession occurs when an ecosystem begins where there is just a little bit of soil or bottom sediment. (Example: an ecosystem starts where a fire burned down or destroyed a forest.)
16. consists of living biological components.
17. eat plants and other animals. (Human, pig)
23. resources are materials and energy in nature and that are essential or useful to humans.
25. species are those species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem.
27. capita ecological footprint is the average ecological footprint of an individual in a given country or area.
28. a process in which an entire species ceases to exist, or a population of a species becomes extinct over a large region, but not globally.
31. law of thermodynamics when energy is converted from one form to another in a physical or chemical change, no energy is destroyed nor created.
32. science scientific hypotheses ad results that are presented as reliable without having undergone the rigors of peer review, or that have been discarded as a result of a peer review.
34. footprint the amount of biologically productive land and water needed to indefinitely supply the people in a particular country or area with renewable resources and to absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution produced by such resource use.
36. parts of the earth’s air, water, and soil where life is found.
37. populations of a different species living in a particular place, and potentially interacting with each other.
39. a special DNA molecule together with a number of proteins.
42. species occupy narrow niches, can’t be found almost anywhere. (Tiger salamanders)
43. the rate at which an ecosystem’s producers convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of biomass found in their tissues.
47. prevention reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants.
48. energy energy in motion.
50. quality is a measure of how useful a given sample of matter is as a resource for humans.
52. extinction when species disappear at a low rate.
53. a chemical characteristic that helps determine how a substance dissolved in water will interact with and affect its environment.
55. matter is not highly concentrated, is often located deep underground or dispersed in the ocean or atmosphere and usually has little potential for use as a resource.
56. is an attempt to discover how nature works and to use that knowledge to make predictions about what is likely to happen in nature.
58. chemical combination of two or more atoms of the same or different elements.
61. science experiments that aren’t considered reliable.
63. theory atoms create all elements.
64. the most basic building block of matter.
67. reduce quantity of usage.
71. cycle cycle of carbon.
72. sustainable society one that meets the current and future basic resource needs of its people in a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs.
73. competition occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources such as food, water, light, and space. (Birds eating from different parts of a tree)
74. radiation when energy travels in the form of a wave as a result of changes in electrical and magnetic fields.
75. compounds all other compounds.
77. the ability of a living system such as a grassland or a forest to survive moderate disturbances.
79. level feeding level depending on its source of food or nutrients.
80. change when there is no change in chemical composition.
81. law of thermodynamics whenever energy is converted from one form to another the energy becomes less useful.
84. smallest unit of a chemical element that exhibits its chemical properties.
86. feed on the wastes or dead bodies of other organisms. (Vulture, earthworms)
87. quality is a measure of an energy source’s capacity to do useful work.
88. an approximate representation or simulations of a system being studied.
89. animals that eat producers, feeding mostly on green plants. (Zebra, giraffe)
90. worldview holds that we can and should manage the earth for our benefit but that we have an ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible managers or stewards of the earth.
91. matter is highly concentrated, is typically found near the earth’s surface, and has great potential for use as a resource.
93. resources exist in a fixed quantity, or stock, in the earth’s crust.
96. is an interaction that benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other. (Epiphyte on a trunk of a tree)
99. make the nutrients they need from compounds and energy obtained from their environment.
100. yield the highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply.
101. services are processes in nature such as purification of air and water, which support life and human economies.
103. science consists of data, hypotheses, theories, models, and laws that are widely accepted by all or most of the scientists who are considered experts in the field under study, in what is referred to as scientific consensus.
105. information needed to answer their questions.
107. contamination of the environment by a chemical or other agent such as noise or heat that is harmful to health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms.
108. involves collecting waste material and making them into new materials.
110. cannot produce their own nutrients.
113. heritable traits that provide the individual with some advantage over other individuals.
114. web network of interconnected food chains.
116. species species that migrate into, or deliberately or are accidentally introduced into an ecosystem.
121. compounds contain at least two carbon atoms combined with atoms of one or more other elements.
122. occurs when people are unable to meet their basic needs for adequate food, water, shelter, health, and education.
124. the smallest and most fundamental structural and functional units of life.